The issue of determining the risk of inheritance with malformations of respiratory system is extremely difficult, as in some cases they may be a manifestation of monogenic inherited diseases, and sometimes – the result of adverse environmental effects.
Determination of the risk degree with polygenic inherited diseases, particularly bronchial asthma, presents considerable difficulties for the matter, as the genetic predisposition and the influence of adverse factors (bad environment) also may affect the disease development. It is believed that a child’s risk of the disease is 14% if he is born after a sick baby, 31% – with the disease of one of the parents, 70% – with the disease of both parents.
Further development of genetic consulting is inextricably linked to the development of prenatal diagnostic techniques. In cases of lung diseases a lot of attention is paid to the possibility of prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, deficiency of a1-antitrypsin. Success in this regard is associated with the development of DNA diagnostics.
Can we Prevent the Disease?
We may conclude that asthma is a hereditary disease, but it is different from other hereditary diseases, as it may be prevented if you follow some rules.
Before the child’s birth is important to find out whether the family has ever had asthmatic relatives or relatives with allergic diseases, as allergy is a direct route to asthma. For example, parent might have allergy to dust, the child may have cutaneous manifestations of allergy such as eczema, neurodermatitis, diathesis, but three years later he may develope asthma. Parents often say that they did not have asthma in the family, only their grandmother got asthma in the age of 60. So, the grandmother heredity was manifested in the old age, and the child became ill at the age of four just because the parents had not taken preventive measures.
Proper nutrition is extremely important for bronchial asthma prevention. During pregnancy, the expectant mother must adhere to organic food and eliminate those foods that can cause allergic reactions. It is recommended to boiled or steam the products. So, for example, fried meat contains a lot of extractives that can cause allergies. It is desirable to refuse strong soups, meats, spicy dishes – all this dishes can also cause the release of biologically active substances.
Both a mother and a child are strictly forbidden to use artificial drinks. Children are very fond of all kinds of soft drinks, even though they do not contain any nutrients, but enough allergens. You’d better give the baby juices made from homemade jams, diluted with boiled water. Some natural products, such as strawberries, bananas, may also cause a release of biologically active substances, so we do not recommend them for children with allergies. In general, a child should be feed in accordance with his age. The one-year-old child, for example, should not be given smoked sausage, even if he likes it.
Breastfeeding is very a important asthma preventive measure. Breast milk is a product that is intended by the nature to protect the baby from infections, allergies of any pathological factors. Unfortunately, more and more mothers abandon breastfeeding because there are many commercially available baby food varieties, all kinds of mixtures, also breastfeeding is a very hard work. But we strongly recommend breast-feed for at least 4 – 6 months in case when the child has a family history of asthma.
Tabacco smoke belongs to very high allergens group, so pregnant women are strictly forbidden to smoke. If a woman smokes during pregnancy, or even in a state of passive smoking, the chances that her baby will be allergic, are increased by 90 percent. During pregnancy, a women should avoid uncontrolled medication. Before the treatment you should consult your doctor if you can take these drugs and how they will affect your expected child.
If the relatives of the mother or father havd asthma (more about it), you should follow the rules of the so-called hypoallergenic life. They are simple and give a good effect. They include daily wet cleaning of the room, wiping dust. Books must be kept in glass cabinet, as they accumulate dust standing on open shelves. If you can not buy cabinets, at least cover books with polyethylene.
Try clean the floor, rugs, carpets more often. Previously asthma disease was called “the disease of rich people”, so if you want to save a child, you should live a fairly ascetic life. That means, you’d better not acquire fleecy carpets, upholstered furniture, whichcollects dust. Instead of expensive heavy curtains hang unpretentious curtains, which can be washed frequently. Remember that often all you need is to organize the room correctly in order to preserve the health of the child.
Families with an unfavorable heredity in relation to asthma are strongly recommend not to have pets, as it will be very difficult to part with them, as no general cleaning can save a baby from the pets hair. Some people say, “Oh, my dog is not hairy.” But the thing is not in the lengh of the hair, but in dandruff, which animals always have. No one knows when the immune system of your child becomes weakened and reacts to the allergen. We often hear from parents: “We have a dog two years already, and the child fell sick just now.” It means that he has received a sufficient dose of the allergen recently.
Therefore, in order not to harm the child, it is better not to keep at home dogs or cats, guinea pigs or poultry – canaries, budgies, because bird feathers have very high allergenic properties. In the medical practice there was a case where the parrot was in the house about a year, and the parents could not believe that the bird is the reason of their child’s allergy. They were sorry to part with the bird, but as soon as the parrot was removed, the child recovered.
We recommend not to have even fish and turtles, as well as dry food is a potent allergen. Particles of feed, being dissolved in the air, can cause severe reaction. Therefore it is necessary either to feed the fish with live food, or not to have it at all. Often, a child’s severe allergy is caused by domestic insects – bugs, cockroaches, ants. In such cases, it is very important to disinfect the flat in proper time. Before disinfection or repair of the apartment, the child should be taken out of the room because the smell of chemicals, paints, wallpaper, building materials can also cause severe allergies. After the repair or disinfection it’s necessary to ventilate the room properly before you bring the child back.
Temper your Child
Often asthma starts after a viral infection. Therefore you should try to protect the child from the unnecessary contact up to a certain age. You should not make a home catering, less do visits, not travel with the child in a public transport. Children of an older age nedd contacts for a proper mental development, therefore, to protect the child against viral infections, it is necessary to harden him. Spray the child’s feet with water from the tap every morning. The hardening procedure should begin with the warm water of the temperature 32 – 34 degrees, gradually, every two or three days, reducing the temperature by one degree until you bring it up to 18 – 20 degrees. It is very useful to swill the whole child, moreover children like this procedure, as there is a pleasant feelingleft after the swelling.
If the child often gets ill with viral infections and they have a protracted nature, it is a serious cause for concern, because a usual viral infection lasts no more than two weeks. Sometimes the child suffers a viral infection and later seems to recover, but he periodically appears wheezing and dry cough at night. He is tired at the slightest physical exercise. In this situation it is necessary to sound the alarm. Usually asthma begins with the defeat of the upper respiratory tract. Naturally, at this stage, it is easier to cope with bronchial asthma. Initially it starts as pharyngitis, adenoids, allergic rhinitis (read more), the disease gradually penetrates into the bronchi and the lungs, causing choking.
The sudden asthma attack usually causes great fear of the parents and the child. First of all, you should provide the child with fresh air by opening a window. Give him water, try to calm the words, ask him to take a proper breath: a short breath and a long exhale. If you consult a doctor in advance, you can avoid this unpleasant situation. You’ll know what to do when the unexpected attack of suffocation happens and will be able to help the child, giving him the medication that may remove the attack.
Modern Methods of Treatment
In the early stages of the disease it is enough to find out the cause of the disease, normalize the home environment, nutrition, and the child’s asthma will pass off. But if the parents go to the doctor too late, then there is a treat to the child. Previously, doctors treated bronchial asthma with pills, which spread in gastrointestinal tract through the vessels. They affected not only the lungs but also other organs, and this effect was not always beneficial. Currently, physicians use inhalation therapy, which is the latest addition to medicine. With inhalation the drug may go directly into the lungs. Anti-inflammatory drugs are also releasedin the form of inhaler.
In addition to inhalation therapy, unconventional methods of treatment of bronchial asthma are also applied – such as acupuncture or salt barotherapy.